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제목 JAPA : Volume 5
기간 2003년 파일



Volume 5 No. 1


Western Concepts in the Japanese Experience: Human Rights and Supranationalism in the Japanese Context

*Abstract : Language remains one of the most immutable barriers between Japan and the West. The problem in rendering difficult western notions in Japanese can be seen in the difficulties in translating two western political concepts—human rights and supranationalism.  The English word 'rights' can be translated into Japanese as kenri.  However, kenri combines the ideas of power or authority with the concepts of profit or interest. This version of the word lacks any connotation of morality, justice or correctness, and tends to cast Japanese who assert a right as self? centered, profit? seeking, and self? righteous. These differences in conceptualization are real; but they do not justify the all too common claims about the insignificance of rights in Japan. There is a greater linguistic, emotional, and semantic challenge in Japan in distinguishing between two concepts--"supranationalism" and "ultranationalism"--which in English are diametrically opposed notions. It may be that the limits on the Japanese worldview, seen in microcosm in the lack of a Japanese way of expressing supranationalism, present a huge barrier to the formation of an East Asian regional regime. However, there are no firm empirical or theoretical grounds for such a conclusion.


Term Limitation Movement: Is It Possible to Establish 'Citizen Legislature' What American Founders Hoped?

*Abstract :
The new political trend of America in the 1990s was term limitation movement in order to reduce big-money influence in politics, the influence of interest groups and lobbyists and for average American citizens to run for public office which eventually lead to 'citizen legislature'.  The term limit movement, which has been projected as a 'cure-all' reform, has drawn widespread support, but the movement also has its unintended effects. Proponents of the reform fall into several categories who disagree with each other over the goals and effects of term-limit. Such differences must be set aside to prevent the weakening of the strong solidarity that exists between term-limit supporters. Opponents of the reform can also play upon the differences and conceptual inconsistencies to weaken the cause. This article deals with those issues one by one. I hope this article would provide the useful hint to reform the corrupted politician in this world.


The Economics of Higher Education and the Role of Competition for Universities - a Consideration of the Korea Case

*Abstract :
Facing globalization and changing technical possibilities for teaching, but also different expectations from the job market, universities have to change their traditional approach to teaching. Despite the long, indigenous tradition of university level teaching in Korea, today reforms are increasingly necessary, as revealed by a number of indicators. Institutional factors, especially the lack of competition in the university system, are responsible for this. Competition works as a 'discovery procedures' (F.A. Hayek) and control procedure for market power and its abuse. In this paper the role of competition in the Korean university systems is analyzed. While the historical roots (the Confucian educational system in Korea) are not alien to competition and while there is a fierce competition for entering universities, competition between universities by performance indicators is severely limited. The reason for this can be seen in an ossification and (viewed from a public choice perspective) in the power position of office holders and academic clans. This paper discusses, how competition – based on a competition system guaranteeing fairness and transparency – can be reintroduced in Korea's university system. For this, the changes required by the challenges mentioned above should be seen a chance to change an otherwise sclerotic academic system.


Foreign Policy in Aid: Pattern of Allocation of Japan's Official Development Assistance in Southeast Asia

*Astract :
This paper analyzes how Japan allocated its aid in Southeast Asia, specifically the criteria where the allocation was based, and the factors that influenced its aid behavior. It assumes that aid allocation and Japan's foreign policy direction go in tandem. Allocation criteria were based on economic factors because foreign policy objectives overlap with economic diplomacy. The study confirmed that Japan's foreign policy direction affected the pattern of aid allocation. The most observable changes were the huge ODA flows to Vietnam during the 1990s, and the considerable aid flows to Cambodia and Laos. Economic and political interests were exemplified by huge ODA allocation to Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, countries with which Japan had the most trade, investment and political ties.


Spatial Structure and Commuting Patterrns in the Seoul Metropoltan Area

*Abstract :
This study examines the spatial patterns of employment and population with two urban density models-monocentric and polycentric models-for Seoul for the period 1980-1995. It was found that Seoul's urban spatial structure appears to be undergoing a transition similar to that of other cities, from one that is strongly CBD-oriented to one that is more random, more spread out, and whose employment, at least, is more focused on outlying employment subcenters. Unlike some other cities, population in Seoul does not appear to be strongly influenced by its large employment subcenters. The change in the average commuting distance per a commuter was also estimated in this study. It was found that the average commuting distance of workers in Seoul metroplitan area has notably increased due to rapid decentralization in the period of 1990-1996. One of the major causes for deterioration of the jobs-housing mismatch problem during this period was the new towns, which were built in 1990s, to solve the problem of housing supply shortage. Those new town areas are functioning as purely bed-towns since they have poor industrial facilities around.  In this study, the effect of decentralization of employment on commuting behavior was also examined using a simulation. It was found that commuting time could be significantly reduced by decentralizing jobs or centralizing workers


The Direction of  the Roh Moo-Hyun Government's 'Peace and Prosperity Policy' for the Settlement of the North Korean Nuclear Isuue

*Abstract :
The research objective of this thesis is to analyze the Roh Moo-Hyun government's position on the settlement of the North Korean Nuclear Issue, and based on such position, to search for directions in which to propel the Peace and Prosperity Policy. Following such focus, the method of approach taken in this thesis leans towards thenormative⋅prescriptive method of approach, which are two research methods among the study of public policy. Following these research objectives and methods, the results of this thesis analyzed as below. The North Korean nuclear issue can be diagnosed as having two etiological causes. One can be found in the North's development, manufacture and possession of nuclear and traditional WMDs for the survival of its feudalistic and regalistic hereditary monarchism. The other can be found in the abnormality of North Korea-US relations resulting from the pressure policy of the Bush administration that completely denies the entity of the regime and actually pursues its collapse, which is considerably different from the former Clinton administration's tolerance policy which induced the regime to reform and open its doors for its survival, ultimately aiming for a change of regime. The prescription for these two etiological causes would be for North Korea to first announce its forfeit of nuclear arsenal, followed by the US presenting a possibility of change in its pressure policy that denies the entity of the North Korean regime, after which a settlement of issues at hand can be made by negotiations between the North and the US through dialogue and contact, to be finalized through an institutionalized guarantee from an international organization or the international community regarding the fulfillment of the agreement.




Volume 5 No. 2


Instrument, Relation and Identity Issues in International Negotiation :Case Study of the Jimmy Carter and Kim Il Sung Negotiation

  * Abstrct: This study attempts to provide insights into Jimmy Carter's negotiation with North Korean President Kim Il Sung in June of 1994 by using a instrument, relation and identity issues of international negotiations as a lens for analysis. Understanding instrumental, relational, and identity issues are especially significant in analyzing conflicts in which emotions "run high" as they certainly did in the North Korean nuclear crisis.
  A detailed and critical analysis of the instrumental, relational and identity issues in Carter-Kim negotiation will help to uncover the deeper forces at work during the U.S.-North Korean conflict of early 1990s. The analysis of the issues at play will also show why the Carter-Kim negotiation helped to defuse a crisis situation. Finally, this study will illustrate that mediators and diplomats need to identify a set of strategies that will work to defuse high-risk international crises. These efforts will optimize those strategies that not only represent a particular parties best interests, but that work help to transform high risk emotional soundbites into low risk exchanges that recognize the interests of the two contending parties.


The World in Three Spheres : Mere Coexistence with a Nuclear North Korea

 * Abstrct: Can North Korea's nuclear weapons ambitions be contained without force? Or asked way, can diplomacy work with North Korea? The prospects are not good. Yet war is not a foregone conclusion either.


The Theoretical Foundations for ASEAN +3 : Prospect and Limitations

 * Abstrct: The purpose of this paper is to investigate economic desirability and political feasibility of East Asian regionalism, focusing on ASEAN +3 movements.
  East Asia is an interesting exception in the age of regionalism. Despite the fact that rapid economic growth in the region has promoted intraregional trade, there are only a few regional institutions. There are several obstacles to regionalism in East Asia. They include 1) unique historicaltradition of East Asia, especially the hierarchical international order in the region, 2) hegemonic competition between Japan and China, 3) large variation in political, economic and cultural institutions among countries, 4) lack of consensus building process in domestic politics, and 5) high dependence on the United States. In spite of these obstacles, there is a growing consensus that East Asian countries need their own regional economic institutions to enhance economic gains and to countervail regional movements in other parts of the world.
  There are four different theories to explain rationals of FTAs. Two economic theories are the Viner's trade creation/diversion theory and the gravity model theory. Two political theories are domestic political theories and international political theories. All four theories focus on differents sources of FTAs. Two economic theories assess economic desirability of FTAs, and two political theories assess political feasibility of FTAs. In this paper, we will empirically investigate both economic desirability and political feasibility based upon data on ASEAN +3 countries. In this empirical investigation, we will compare European experiences and ASEAN +3 cases.


Retrospect on the Nature and Uses of Soviet Power in International Relations.

 * Abstrct: The purpose of this paper is to evaluated the relative influences of internal and external factors on the Soviet foreign policy. By critically reviewing extensive literature on this subject the author derives several conclusions. First, a view of dichotomy is not helpful in studying the relative impact of the internal and external factors. The appropriate answer to the question is not "either one or the other." Second, records of the Soviet foreign policy and behavior tends to strengthen the argument that internal and extranal factors. Third, ideology as an internal factor played a special role. The attempt to deny the role of ideology only distorts the actual process of policy making. Fourth, since the 1960s, there has been significant growth of the importnace of external factors mainly because of the world wide shift from autarky to interdependence, the shift from extensive growth to intensive growth in the Soviet Union, the emergence of the military strategic parity, and the changing nature of the notion of power.


Collective Identity in the East Asian Community : A Constructivist Approach

 * Abstrct: This paper intends to explore the importance and the roles of culture and identity in relations among Korea, Japan and China. It adopts are constructivist approach in international relations theory as an analytical tool. It is argued, in this paper, that the future of East Asian regional cooperation, in a regional community form, will be strongly influenced by the successful formation of a collective identity and their perceptions to genuinely represent the security and economic interest among those states.
  Despite some obstacles to the successful formation of the EAC, the perception of the roles and importance of a collective identity among EAC member states should be considered. Although it could not explain everything about the dynamics of East Asian cooperation, it could be a supplementary alternative to either politics-based or interest-based explanation. A collective identity among EAC state is a result of their long-lasted historical experiences. As a cultural factors, a collective identity stresses the importance of ideas and beliefs help by East Asian states' elites rather than states as rational actors.


Japanese Imperialism : Political Philosophy Based on the Shinto-Emperor Ideology

 * Abstrct: Freedom of religion was proclaimed in the Meiji Constitution, but it was conditional. After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the new Japanese leaders established the centralized government with the Constitution in 1889. Although there existed advocates for democratic thought protected by freedom of speech under the Constitution, there were never enough to become a majority before 1945. The dominant thought was the Shinto-Emperor ideology, which was called the Kokutai and it was a characteristic of the state, where the emperor was the absolute ruler beyond time and scope. It was the core political philosophy which put the people under a spell after the Restoration until the end of World War II.



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