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제목 JAPA : Volume 6
기간 2004년 파일



Volume 6 No. 1


Making the World Safe for Democracy: Promoting Freedom

<Abstract> Democratic governments do not wage war on one another, thus we need to produce more democratic dyads. However, while some practitioners feel it best to confront authoritarianism and even to impose democratic transition, others feel that economic development leads to political liberalization, and that this may be encouraged through the promotion of free trade. This paper addresses the risks  associated with both approaches and concludes that there is no inevitable without active management and education not just of the masses, but also of cabinets and foreign offices that their own national interest is best served through peace and spread of commerce. 


Economic Adjustment and Political Changes in Mexico: Centering on the Process of TELMEX Privatization

<Abstract> Paying attention to a historical coincidence of economic liberalization and democratization in contemporary Mexico, this paper purposes to scrutinize the political implications of the economic adjustment for state-society relations, especially focusing on the changes in the state-labor alliance manifested during the process of TELMEX privatization. In pursuing this purpose, this paper develops its arguments based on the following two assumptions. The first is that the unevenness of the current economic restructuring especially in Latin American countries can be ascribed to the apparent discrepancy between domestic and international political economy. The second assumptions is that the economic reform policy largely as an incarnation of the state's strategic reaction to the external pressures may result in changes of the relationship between the state and society. Although the basic ideas of a radical neoliberal strategy aim at reduction of the state's role in economy and revival of 'pure' market mechanism, this paper argues that the realities so far have not shown an absolute retrenchment of the state's role; rather the imposition of neoliberal economic reform seems to be dependent on the state's power over the society at least during the transition period. At least so far, the tenacious tension between international pressures and domestic demands in Mexico have generated a hybrid form of political economy structure, that is, 'free market with traditional social values, 'which has been dubbed by the Mexican regime as 'social liberalism.


Reflections on the Populist Politics in Contemporary Korea : A Reading of its Discursive logic and Cultural Frame

<Abstract> This paper deals with the politics of populist discourses and its cultural frame in contemporary Korea. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, I articulate a reading of the current Korean president Roh Moo Hyun's discourses focusing on the populist dimensions of his rhetoric. In the second part, I explore the conditions of emergence of populist discourses by taking into account the socio-historical context of Korean populism. I try to situate recent "outbreak" of populism within the long history of Korean populist politics and to confirm " manic dualism" as a cultural frame of Korean populism in relation to the crucial cleavage between the conservatives and the progressives that have seemed to dominate contemporary Korean political culture. And coming to a conclusion, I discussed the connection between Korean populism and democracy as a clinical diagnosis of polulist politics in Korea. Traditional approaches to populism have highlighted the linkage with modernization, the enfranchisement of the underdogs and the role played by charismatic leaders, not interrelating with societal democratization. But my work takes on the relationship by thinking populism as an internal periphery of democracy so as to shed light on a possible iterating interiority of the populism, that is, a symptom of democratic politics by looking at the tensions that push populism to the edges of democracy.


Political Changes and the Ethnic Koreans in Central Asia : A Kantian Liberal Perspective

<Abstract> The countries of the Central Asian region have been experiencing rapid political changes in recent times. In this context, the issue of ethnocentralism has emerged as a critical problem in this region. As many ethnic Koreans are living in this region, they are not free from the conflicts stemming from ethnocentralism. From this general understanding, this paper looks at recent political changes and the ensuing inter-ethnic conflicts in the Central Asian countries having the ethnic Koreans in mind. A Kantian liberal perspective has been introduced to analyze political changes and the dynamics of inter-ethnic conflicts. From the Kantian liberal perspective, this paper attempts to locate the underlying causes for the contemporary conflicts among different national groups in the region in the discriminative and despotic treatment of other ethnic national groups under imperial Russia and the former Soviet Union. Ironically enough, however, the newly independent Central Asian countries also show a new exclusive ethnocentralism. In this context, Russians and other ethnic national groups are facing tremendous challenges. This paper points out that his policy is not desirable because it might cause the outflow of brains from these countries and dispel the potential foreign investors which are urgently needed for state-building. Therefore, drawing on the Kantian concepts of hospitality and cosmopolitan right, this paper suggests that the leadership in the Central Asian countries treat the ethnically different nationals with hospitality and fairness. As conclusion, the ethnic Koreans in this region are advised to adjust themselves to indigenous cultures of the host countries, while they try to preserve their own traditional culture.


The Arms Control End Game on the Korean Peninsula

<Abstract> Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, North Korea has enhanced its national nuclear infrastructure. However, by the late 1980s, it was clear that Phyongyang intended to divert its nuclear program to military-related projects. It was during this time that North Korea began a nuclear game in which the Democratic People's Republic of Korea a nuclear activity in return for concessions from the west. Three U.S. administrations--two Republican and one Democratic --have attempted to reach a deal with this isolated communist country using a series of failed bilateral negotiations. Only recently has the Bush Administration stressed the importance of a multilateral solution to the crisis. The current nuclear crisis can only be solved when other regional states, acting in conjunction with the United States, demonstrates collective resolve and negotiates from a position of strength rather than weakness.




Volume 6 No. 2


Privatization and Corporate Governance in Russia: What Direction Is Being Taken for Improvement?
(Youngjin Kim )

<Abstract> This paper considers Russian corporate governance in accordance with the effectuation of privation policy and the change of ownership structure. Enterprise restructuring and reforms have followed the radical process of transition, especially privatization policy, and it resulted in the situation requiring the improvement of corporate governance in Russia. Privatization, in itself, is insufficient to effect a successful establishment of corporate governance, as well as transition to a market economy. This paper looks at the characteristics and remaining problems of Russian privatization and its impact on corporate governance.
Russia still remains to be in its infant stage in terms of corporate governance. It might be too soon to tell which governance model can be presumed that the Russian governance system will evolve toward the Anglo-American model in the neat term and end up with a unique Russian model in the long term due to Russia's unique culture and history.


The Iraq War and the Korean Peninsula
(Brendan Howe )

<Abstract> Because the Korean War ended in an armistice rather than a peace treaty, North Korea is still technically at war with the United States. Now, both sides appear to be preparing themselves for another full-scale hot war in the event that they fail to forge a diplomatic solution to the current nuclear proliferation standoff. Many commentators fell that the situation has been rendered more volatile by recent events. The war waged by the US against Iraq, another member of what President Georage W.bush termed the 'Axis of Evil', Bush's recent re-election, and aggressive posturing between Washinton and Pyongyang such as the North Korea Human Rights Act, have raised the question of whether North Korea might be next. However, this article contends that although an ever-present contingent danger, a second Korean War remains unlikely.


Analysing India's Nuclear Doctrine: Is It a Paradigm Shift?
(Mohammed Badrul Alam)

<Abstract> India's response th global nuclear non-proliferation measures has been a dominant theme in the country's overall evolution of nuclear colonial rule in 1947. In 1947, India conducted a nuclear test that it termed a 'peaceful nuclear exposition' and in 1998, India conducted a full scale nuclear test and subsequently claimed to attain nuclear weapon capability which was followed soon after by its neighbor, Pakistan, also opting for the same nuclear route.
The purpose of this article is to analyze, scrutinize and critically evaluate certain key elements of India's draft nuclear doctrine including the changes and transformations has taken place since 1998. The paper also looks at and examines some workable and plausible confidence-building measures that could be experimented in the context of India-Pakistan relations.


A Confucian Vision of Human Rights
(Kurtis Hagen )

<Abstract> After much political arm-twisting, many reluctant East Asian leaders have now accepted, at least in word, the proposition that human rights can be regarded as "universal". Far from being an admission of philosophical defeat, I argue that it is a move that has enabled East Asians to adopt the more nuanced position. Further, by reinterpreting "universalism", East Asian leaders have been largely successful undermining both the moral realist perspective that is often assumed in human rights claims, as well as the supposition that civil rights and "negative rights"(or freedom) can be used to trump "mere aspiration" such as economic development and welfare.
Adopting this new understanding, this "tempered universalism," has involved substantial concessions from the West, both in terms of philosophical worldview, and in terms of actual policy implications.


A Nation Redefined: Post-1997 South Korea
(Jasper S. Kim)

<Abstract> This article argues that post-1997 South Korea is undergoing a unique period of fundamental and broad changes across the nation's main critical sectors of economic policy, political ideology, foreign policy, social perspective, infrastructure, and educational structure, as a result of the 1997 korean financial crisis. The author provides a broad overview of the notable shifts occurring across such sectors, noting that technology was a critical tool used to effectively implement such changes. Further, it is argued that such rapid and sweeping changes across such critical sectors as a result of the 1997 korean financial crisis were distinguishable from the pre-1997 period to significantly strengthen the nation for the new millennium to create a defining "new era" for the Korean republic.



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